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Kitchen gardens
Small scale family kitchen gardens are a familiar scene in the village but complaints about the lack of water during the summer months are often voiced. Several families have drilled deep boreholes, up to 22m in depth, into the granite, with varying degree of success. During the summer 2001, while villagers tried to tap additional sources of water to the large village water tank, a tragic event took away two young lives.

Hydrology studies
A detailed study of the hydrology in the village area would help future developments but some knowledge has already been acquired after the visits of geologists, Mehmet Ekmekçi from Hacettepe University and Tuygun Savaci from the Köy Hizmetleri. It is clear that, at best, the level of the water table can be only a few meters below the ground surface but will drop down during dry summer months. The advantage of the deep core is that water seeping down through the cracks in the granite remains clean but seepage is often too slow against demand. Wells, of 1 to 2m diameter, tapping a greater quantity of water from the permeable geological layer above the granite, seem to yield a greater quantity of water but increasing demand should be monitored to ensure that the water table does not drop too dramatically.

Water and pumps
The Kerkenes Eco-Center, phase one, with the help of the Australian Embassy, tackled the water problem by investing in a deep borehole. A first trial within the project plot of land was found to be too hard to drill although at least 2m of water seeped in the 7m deep borehole. Although drilling was abandoned, a hand-pump was installed for occasional use. Water will be tested to determine if it is fit for drinking. Passers by will be welcomed to use this modest source of water and a small trough for animals to drink from will be built.
The second deep core was located a hundred meters in front of the house, by the streambed, within the plot belonging to Dr. Sevket Bagçi, who very kindly gave us permission to drill on his land. At this location a 12m deep layer of sediment was found on top of the granite. A total of 17m were drilled using 16cm diameter corer when the granite was reached.
Once drilling was completed and the borehole cleaned by the Sorgun Fire Brigade, to whom we extend our thanks, the submersible pump was lowered down and connected to a switch panel controlled from the house balcony. An electrical switch allows water to be pumped down to a certain level and then cuts off automatically. A pipe brings water up to the existing water tank systems on the hill behind the house. Water can then be used under gravity without further pumping.
Wind pumps, which would demand an investment of $1,500 to $3,000, are envisaged in a future phase of the project but as an immediate alternative the electric pump is being used and will allow preliminary results for the evaluation of different techniques and problem resolution. It is also clear that such an investment cannot be contemplated by most of the villagers but through cooperation and a possible common scheme families might get together to invest over a period of 3 to 5 years a sum that would allow one wind pump to be purchased every year

Irrigation techniques
Once water is available, its use has to be as controlled as possible. Drip irrigation is a well-known technique that does so but the commercially available systems are also beyond the villagers means. An alternative was set up with relatively cheap plastic pipes in which holes have been punched. The system works and even if control is not as sophisticated as with systems available on the market, it has been found to be economical of water. It was unfortunately already too late in the season for the system to be fully tested and the yield of vegetables to be quantified but hopefully summer 2003 will tell the tale.

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