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Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15
Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19
Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23


A One-Room Structure

It is thanks to the 2003 grant from the Australian Embassy Direct Aid Programme that construction of a small mudbrick structure within the Kerkenes Expedition House complex was undertaken in the autumn of that year as the first snow fell on the village (Fig. 12).
Timber posts and beams were incorporated within the mudbrick walls to provide stability against earthquake loads. The mudroof (Fig. 13), supported by a timber structure, has to be regularly rolled to ensure that it does not leak. A disadvantage of traditional mud walls and roofs is the need for regular maintenance but improvements can be made by the introduction of modern materials and techniques. Bitumen paper lined the roof while a Bituline waterproofing membrane, donated by Onduline, was applied to those parts of the walls that were constructed below ground level. Old car tyres were used as permanent formwork for pouring the concrete pillar on which the balcony posts and beams rest. Disused telephone poles, donated by Telekom, were sliced into blocks (Fig. 14) and set into the floor with a mixture of mud and lime (Fig. 15). The building was completed in November 2003 but the last coat of paint had to wait for the spring 2004.
New technologies can improve the performance of traditional materials and techniques, thereby combining the advantages of both. The project dynamically develops its research design so as to combine theoretical analysis with experimental studies in the field.

Promoting Sustainability and the Development of Rural Settlements

The small structure, called the Eco-Building, houses the Sahmuratli Village Association and will provide a meeting point for villagers to discuss and develop activities related to the welfare of the village. The Kerkenes Project has set up one of its computers, which awaits a modem for connection to the Internet. Future programmes will include workshops for both men and women, and educational activities for children. If the development of organic gardening attains a high level of success, it is envisaged that the Village Association would act as an outlet for the sale of the garden produce. It is also anticipated that the Association will eventually be able to provide facilities for guests and visitors attracted to the area by its rich cultural heritage, and in particular by the archaeological research undertaken at Kerkenes.

Environmental Studies

Consisting of a single room and a balcony, the new building (Fig. 16) with its traditional mudbrick walls and mud roof is an ideal structure for the ongoing study of indigenous building materials and traditional construction techniques because it is simple to configure for simulation studies. Once its physical properties have been recorded and a virtual 3D model created (Fig.17), the building material configuration and other parameters can be changed so that simulations (Fig. 18) can be produced and compared. Tinytag dataloggers are used to record temperature and relative humidity both outside and inside the building. This data is then used to check, and adjust if necessary, the virtual model. Extensive environmental studies on actual and theoretical data can thus be performed.
Temperature and humidity are recorded with dataloggers located inside and outside the building. When several dataloggers are available, simultaneous collection of data can be recorded for two or more types of buildings. In this way excellent data sets can be recorded thus permitting comparative studies of the environmental performance of traditional building materials with those of industrially produced ones.
Other structures have been planned and will be built as soon as resources become available. One material that the team is eager to test is the autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) block. AKG Gazbeton, which has already supported the research programme, has promised to provide the material needed for the construction of an AAC structure roofed with aerated concrete slabs.

Preliminary Results from Analysis

Environmental studies on the mudbrick building, conducted by Tugrul Karagagüzel, not only provided valuable insights into its thermal performance (Fig. 19), but made it possible to compare the results from the computer model with the actual performance. This was done by matching the simulated dynamic thermal performance of the building with the real data. The building was neither occupied nor heated during this period. Actual temperature and relative humidity measurements collected by the Tinytag dataloggers for a one-month period were plotted together with the computer simulations made for the same period (Fig. 20). Graphs displaying both the real and calculated data can be used to judge the accuracy of the simulations and if discrepancies occur the given parameters can be checked and adjusted.
If the weather data (Fig. 21) for the given region is available simulations can be done for different times of the year. The model can be tested with the climatic data of other regions and the effect of building materials and climatic factors on thermal comfort inside a given building can be assessed.
It is possible to calculate the amount of energy required for space heating and cooling in order to maintain the ideal conditions for thermal comfort (Fig. 22). The environmental performance of traditional building materials (mudbrick, stone, timber frames, mud roofs) against those of contemporary ones (kiln fired bricks and tiles, cement blocks, and insulation materials) can be evaluated. Other parametric studies (Fig. 23) relating to building form and orientation or to window size, type and orientation can also be performed.
The graphs illustrated below represent a selection of results. It is hoped that the number of simulations performed can be enlarged for a better understanding of the environmental performance of all available building materials. The right choice of material for an efficient conservation of energy will bring long-term savings in fuel bills and help decrease the amount of carbon dioxide produced by our industrial society.

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