In the later seventh century BC a new capital, protected by 7 km of stone defences, was built on Kerkenes Mountain in central Turkey. The founders were bearers of Phrygian culture, a very considerable number of who had moved into this region of central Anatolia from the west. Their urban concepts, cults, architectural traditions, arts and crafts were all Phrygian. Inscription and graffi ti were in the Phrygian language. This city is almost certainly to be identifi ed with ancient Pteria. In the 540s BC, Croesus king of Lydia crossed the Red River to capture the city. It was perhaps Croesus who was responsible for looting and burning the city in events connected with war between Lydia and Persia that were soon to result in the destruction of Sardis and the extension of the Persian Empire to the west coast of Turkey.

The Eco-Center at ┼×ahmuratl─▒ Village below the ancient city promotes the use of renewable energy, water management, appropriate building materials and energy-effi cient design for sustainable rural life on the Anatolian Plateau. This approach combines heritage management with village improvement, bringing together village residents, local and state officials, NGOs, students and academics all engaged in the protection of cultural and environmental assets in a dynamic rural setting.